TECHNICAL GLOSSARY

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4DGL

A high level programming language designed for the EVE core to develop embedded graphics applications. It bears similarities with C and Pascal making it easy to understand.

4D Programming Cable

A USB to Serial-TTL UART converter cable. The cable provides a fast and simple way to connect all of the 4D devices that require TTL level serial interface to USB.

4D-UPA

A universal programmer designed to work with multiple 4D Systems display modules.

A

A

ADC

Analog to Digital Converter. A device that receives an analog signal such as an electric current and converts it to a digital binary format that computers and microcontrollers can understand.

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Standard ASCII uses the last 7 bits to represent all standard English letters, numbers and symbols. Extended ASCII includes the first bit to indicate accented characters and other symbols.

B

B

BACK CONTACT

A metallic layer that covers the entire back surface of a solar PV cell and acts as a conductor.

Also used to refer to advanced cell designs such as EWT where both terminals of the cell are located on the back side of the wafer, thus increasing the light-gathering area of the cell and hence improving conversion efficiency.

BACK GLASS

The bottom layer of a thin film solar module, which provides rigidity and electrical insulation. Current is extracted from the module through the junction box that is attached to the circuit through a hole in the back glass.

BACKPLANE

In TFT-LCD manufacturing, the backplane is the array of thin-film transistors that control the light output of each pixel on the display.

BAUD Rate

Or simply baud. It is the maximum oscillation rate of an electronic signal. It can be used to measure data transmission speeds if the number of bits per pulse is known.

Bit

Binary Digit. It smallest unit of measurement of computer data. It has a value of either one or zero.

Byte

A unit of measurement of computer data that is equal to 8 bits. It can hold a value of 0 to 255.

Byte Array

A consecutive sequence of bytes. Serial commands to and from 4D Systems displays are sent as byte arrays.

C

C

Char

Character. A letter, number, punctuation, space or symbol sent or received to and from a computer or microcontroller. When using an ASCII, a single char is equivalent to a byte.

Checksum

A value used to check the integrity of a file or data transfer. In 4D Systems products, it is computed by XOR’ing the first byte to the rest of the bytes in the byte array. It is always the last byte in the byte array.

CLB

Cover Lens Bezel. A type of 4D Systems display that integrates the bezel to the display panel in a single piece of glass.

CMD (Genie)

Command. Tells the display what command to execute. It is always the first byte in the byte array.

CMD (Windows)

Command Prompt. The Windows equivalent of a Linux Shell Terminal.

Comm Port

A serial communication port used to connect devices such as your display.

D

D

Device Driver

A particular form of software application that is designed to enable interaction with hardware devices. Without the required device driver, the corresponding hardware device fails to work.